There are many Web technologies. A scripting language, script language or extension language is a programming languange that allows control of one or more software applications. “”Scripts” are distinct form the core code of the application, which is usually written in a different languge, and are often created or at least modified by the end-user. Scripts are often interpreted form source code or bytecode, where as the applications they contorl are traditionally compiled to native machine code. Scripting languages are nearly always enbedded in the applications they control.
The name “script” is derived from the written script of the performing arts, in which dialogue is set down to be spoken by human actors. Early script languages were often called batch languages or job control languages. Such early scripting languages were created to shorten the traditional edit-compile-link-run process.
Historically, there was a clear distinction between “real” high speed programs written in languages such as C, and simple, slow scripts written in languages such as Bourne Shell or Awk. But as technology improved, the performance differences sharank and interperted languages like Java, Lisp, Perl and Phython emerged and gained in popularity to the point where they are considered general-purpose programming languages and not just languages the “drive” ad interpreter.
The Common Gateway Interface allowing scripting languages to control web servers, thus communicate over the web. Scripting languages that made use of CGI early in the evolution of the Web include Pear, ASP and PHP.